Urinary Complaints


The student understands the anatomy and embryology of the urinary tract system.

Knowledge Objectives

Through their reading and patient care experiences, at the end of the rotation students should be able to:

Describe the potential etiologies of hematuria.
Consider age, presence of pain, character of bleeding trauma, etc.
Consider occult vs. gross hematuria
Discuss the diagnostic modalities available for evaluation of hematuria including cost, risks indications and limitations.
Consider CT, cystoscopy, IVP, ultrasound, cystourethrogram, and retrograde pyleography.
Describe the staging and management of renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma and bladder carcinoma.
Discuss the risk factors for composition of, and management of renal and ureteral calculi.
Discuss the clinical presentation of renal and ureteral calculi.
Discuss the etiologies and diagnostic evaluation of a patient with dysuria.
Outline the etiologies and work-up of a patient with pneumaturia.
Outline the evaluation and treatment options for patients with urinary incontinence.
Outline the initial evaluation of patients presenting with urinary frequency, nocturia, urgency or urinary retention.
Consider pertinent H & P, and diagnostic tests including prostate ultrasound.